## Fundamentals of thermodynamics

Experimental introduction to temperature measurement technology: methods, areas of application, characteristics

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- learning the fundamentals of temperature
measurement by experimentation

- familiarisation with the various methods, their
areas of application and special features
- non-electrical methods: gas- and liquid-filled

….

- non-electrical methods: gas- and liquid-filled

Comparison of steady and non-steady state temperature measurement using seven typical measuring devices

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- temperature measurements with
- psychrometer
- bimetallic
- gas thermometer
- thermocouple

….

Measurement of positive and negative pressure with different measuring devices

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- familiarisation with 2 different measuring methods:
- direct method with U-tube manometer and inclined
- tube manometer
- indirect method with Bourdon tube pressure
- gauge

….

Comparison of four measuring methods of humidity in a climatic chamber with adjustable humidity

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- measuring methods for air humidity measurement
- psychrometric humidity measurement
- hygrometric humidity measurement
- capacitive humidity measurement

- characteristic variables to describe air humidity

….

Experimental investigation of gas laws and changes of state

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- demonstrating the laws of state changes in

gases experimentally - isothermal change of state, Boyle-Mariotte law
- isochoric change of state, Gay-Lussac’s 2
^{nd}law

Determination of the adiabatic exponent according to Clément-Desormes

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- determination of the adiabatic exponent according

to Clément-Desormes - adiabatic change of state of air
- isochoric change of state of air

Investigation of the thermal conductivity of different metals

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- time dependency until the steady state is reached
- calculate the thermal conductivity λ of different

metals - calculate the thermal resistance of the sample
- heat transfer with different samples connected in

….

Determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for gaseous and liquid fluids

##### Learning objectives / experiments

Steady heat conduction in gases and liquids:

- determine the thermal resistance of fluids
- determination of thermal conductivities k for different

fluids at different temperatures

Transient heat conduction in fluids:

….

Investigation of heat conduction and convection using the example of a cooling fin

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- effect of heat conduction and convection on heat

transfer - effect of free and forced convection on heat transfer
- calculate convective heat transfers
- effect of different materials on heat conduction

….

Calculation of convective heat transfer at different geometries: flat plate, cylinder, tube bundle

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- free and forced convection
- calculation of convective heat transfer at different

geometries- flat plate
- cylinder

….

Effect of different surfaces on heat transfer

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- verify Lambert’s inverse-square law
- verify Stefan-Boltzmann law
- verify Kirchhoff’s law
- study transient behaviour
- create power balances

….

Investigation of thermal and light radiation using a thermopile and lux meter

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- Lambert’s cosine law
- inverse-square distance law (Lambert)
- Stefan-Boltzmann constant
- Kirchhoff’s laws
- absorptivity

….

- absorptivity

Study of heat conduction in solids

##### Learning objectives / experiments

Linear heat conduction (flat wall)

- determination of temperature profiles with different

materials - determination of the temperature profile during a

malfunction

….

Investigation of the insulation properties of typical materials from the building materials sector

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- determination of the thermal conductivity λ of

different materials - determination of the thermal resistance
- thermal conductivity λ of several specimens

connected in series (up to a thickness of 50mm)

Determination of the steady and non-steady state conductivities in metallic specimens

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- steady-state heat conduction
- non-steady-state heat conduction
- temperature-time curves
- determination of the thermal conductivity k
- thermal conductivities k of different metals (steel,

….

Heat transfer by convection and radiation in gases

##### Learning objectives / experiments

Experiments in vacuum

- heat transfer by radiation
- determination of the radiation coefficient

Experiments at ambient pressure or positive gauge pressure - heat transfer by convection and radiation

….

Pressure and temperature measurement in a steam boiler

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- recording the vapour pressure curve of water
- presentation of the relationship between pressure

and temperature in a closed system - temperature and pressure measurement
- influence of foreign gases (air) on the pressure

Observation of typical forms of evaporation in a water pipe environment

##### Learning objectives / experiments

observation of typical forms of evaporation

- single phase liquid flow
- sub-cooled boiling
- slug flow
- annular flow

….

Demonstration of evaporation in a steam boiler

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- visualisation of different forms of evaporation
- free convection boiling
- nucleate boiling
- film boiling

- heat transfer

….

Measurement of heat transfer in dropwise and film condensation

##### Learning objectives / experiments

- dropwise and film condensation
- determination of the heat transfer coefficient
- effect of pressure, temperature and non-

condensable

gases on the heat transfer coefficient