The friction loss occurs at elbows, bends, valves and fittings and also at special pipe fittings such as a thermostatic valve or a reducer. The pressure differences can be shown on a multiple water tube manometer as head loss.
The trainer uses a closed water circuit with tank and pump.
- Effect of the flow rate, pipe diameter and changing
cross-section, as well as various pipe fittings on
friction loss - Determination of operating point, pump and
 Investigation of the friction loss in pipe constrictions, elbows, bends, valves and fittings 13-tube manometer  Circulating pump
Tank: approx. 5LPump
- max. flow rate: 60L/min
- max. head: 4m
- flow rate: 100...1000L/h
- water column: 1600mm
065.21000 HL 210 Losses in Pipe Systems and