## Fundamentals of steady flow

In the field of steady flow, devices are particularly suited to teaching measurement of the flow course, pressure distribution and velocity distribution.

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- representation of the flow profile
- determination of local and averaged flow velocity
- effect of the Reynolds number on the flow profile
- recognise differences between laminar and turbulent flow formation
- pipe friction / shear stress

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#### HM 250.06

Recording the trajectory of the water jet and discharge coefficients at different outlet velocities

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- investigate how the level in the tank affects the outlet velocity
- apply Bernoulli’s equation
- compare determined and theoretical outlet velocity
- investigate outlet inserts with different diameters and inlet contours, determine pressure loss coefficients
- investigate how the outlet velocity and the pressure loss coefficient affect the trajectory of the water jet

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#### HM 241

Experiments on water flow in open flumes and in pipes, transparent design allows observation of the flow processes

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- fundamentals of pipe flow and open-channel flow
- differential pressure measurement at the orifice, Venturi nozzle, pipe bends and pipe angles, contraction and enlargement
- investigation of weir structures in an open channel
- in conjunction with the power meter HM 240.02
- recording a pump characteristic

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- recording a fan characteristic

- in conjunction with the power meter HM 240.02
- determining the fan efficiency

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- determining the fan efficiency

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- measurement of the power consumption of a fan
- measurement of the power consumption of a pump
- determination of the related characteristic curve

#### HM 240.03

Electronic total pressure sensor

Measurement of the velocity distribution in the intake tube on HM 240

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- in conjunction with HM 240
- measurement of the total pressure and the static pressure in HM 240’s intake pipe
- recording pressure distribution over the cross section
- determining velocity distribution over the cross section

- in conjunction with HM 240.04

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#### HM 240.04

Pressure distribution on a cylinder

Cylinder in transverse incident flow; record pressure distribution in the wake of the cylinder in conjunction with HM 240.03

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- in conjunction with HM 240
- measurement of the pressure distribution around a cylinder subject to transverse incident flow

- in conjunction with total pressure sensor HM 240.03
- measurement of the total pressure in the wake of a cylinder
- determine drag coefficient from the pressure distribution in the wake of a cylinder

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#### HM 240.05

Pressure losses in pipe elements

Measurement of pressure losses in straight pipe sections, in a 90° pipe bend, and in a 90° pipe angle

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- in conjunction with HM 240
- measurement of pressure losses in
- straight pipe sections
- a 90° pipe bend
- a 90° pipe angle

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#### HM 240.06

Heat transfer at a cylinder in transverse flow

Investigation of heat transfer from a heated rod to an air flow

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- in conjunction with HM 240
- recording a cooling curve
- determining the heat transfer coefficients from the cooling curve

#### HM 220

Determining pressure loss and velocity profiles; different measuring objects

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- experiments in the field of steady, incompressible flows by means of different measuring objects:
- calculation of the flow rate and the flow velocity
- recording the different velocity profiles in both the free jet and the pipe cross-section
- representation of the pressure loss in the system characteristic
- representation of the pressure loss at different pipe elements

#### HM 220.01

Examination of the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle; representation of the pressure curve

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- examination of the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle
- determination of the dynamic pressure
- calculation of the flow velocity
- representation of the pressure curve as a function of the cross-sectional area

#### HM 220.02

Measurement of boundary layers

Velocity distribution and boundary layer thickness within the boundary layer of a flat plate in longitudinal flow; vertically sliding Pitot tube

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- investigation of the boundary layer on a flat plate
- representation of velocity profiles

#### HM 225

For experiments from the fields of flow around bodies and steady incompressible flow

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- together with appropriate accessories: experiments from the field of flow around bodies
- velocity measurement of flows with Pitot tube
- boundary layer analysis on a flat plate with flow along the plate
- drag of bodies
- demonstration of the Coanda effect

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##### Learning objectives/experiments

- investigation of the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle
- determination of the dynamic pressure from the measurement data via Bernoulli’s principle
- calculation of the flow velocity from the measurement data using Bernoulli’s equation
- pressure and velocity distribution

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- investigation of the pressure curve at a 90° pipe bend
- determination of the static pressure at 29 pressure measuring points
- representation of the pressure distribution

##### Learning objectives/experiments

- measurements of the pressure loss in laminar flow
- measurements of the pressure loss in turbulent flow
- determining the critical Reynolds number
- determining the pipe friction factor
- comparing the actual pipe friction factor with the theoretical friction factor